Team:CAU China/Integrated Human Pratice/Questionnaire

    In order to broadly understand the public’s understanding and attention to locust disasters, we set up 16 related questions for statistical data analysis, combined with classification analysis and comparative analysis of related factors. The results show that the public’s attention to locust disaster-related news is generally low. Moreover, there are fewer people who have personally experienced the locust plague, and most people do not understand the prevention and control methods of the locust plague.

    In response to such survey results, our team believes that locust disasters are an important aspect that endangers the safety of agricultural production. Our project can provide new ideas and methods for preventing locust disasters, and use biotechnology to control locust disasters, and practice in humans. It is of great significance to increase the public’s attention and understanding of the locust disaster in the process. The questionnaire survey has also allowed us to improve our project, clarify more extensive publicity of locust plague related knowledge and main prevention and control methods, strengthen science popularization, and let the public better understand the locust disaster, one of the main hazards of China’s agricultural economic development, is an important part.
Pre-design and methods
     In order to obtain more targeted and effective data from the limited questionnaire questions, our team has made many discussions and consultations with more experienced teachers, and carefully designed and classified the questions according to different statistical needs.

    First of all, we designed three questions for the public’s understanding of the locust disaster. We conducted investigations from the circumstances of the international locust plague and the domestic locust plague, and mainly aimed at whether the public understands the necessary factors such as the locust species and climatic conditions that cause the locust plague.

     Secondly, we set up 5 questions for whether the people know about or experienced the locust plague in their living area, the damage caused by the locust plague and the subsequent prevention and control situation, so as to understand the extent of the impact of the locust disaster among people and how they faced the locust disaster. Respond to the situation, and then reasonably evaluate the application space and value of our project.

    Finally, we set up three specific questions about the physical, chemical, and biological methods of locust control to investigate and analyze the public’s understanding and concern about the locust disaster control methods, and we also openly collected the public’s opinions on different control measures. The attitudes and opinions of the people will help us further understand the social situation and design better and more powerful promotion. In addition, we also collected people’s views and attitudes towards locust disaster news. Questions have been set for the degree of attention, way of understanding, and whether the degree of attention will increase, which enriches our questionnaire survey.

Figure 1 The process of setting up the questionnaire

    Through repeated speculations and multiple revisions, we finally formed an exquisite survey questionnaire. Our team used network resources to spread the questionnaire extensively. For the recovered questionnaire, we first classified the questions. The classification of the modules is analyzed separately for the problems of different groups using different statistical methods. We also combined age, region and other information to perform a cluster analysis on the problems of different groups, and tried to explore certain statistical laws.

    Combined with the results of the above questionnaire and statistical analysis, our team has made targeted improvements and perfected our projects,designed many meaningful HP projects.

Statistics and analysis
    Our questionnaire collected a total of 257 questionnaires, of which 257 were valid questionnaires. Participants in the survey range from under 20 to over 50, with an age span of more than 30 years old, with full consideration of people of different age groups. There are 22 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions involved in the questionnaire survey, accounting for 64.70% of all provinces and municipalities in the country. It basically covers most areas of the country, and the degree of investigation is particularly high in Inner Mongolia, which has happened locust plagues in the past. The proportion of women in our survey is relatively high, reaching 64%. In addition, participants of different occupations and educational backgrounds are included. The statistical objects are extensive, so the results are representative and the data analysis is meaningful.

Figure 14 The age of questionnaire participants

Figure 15 The occupational situation of the questionnaire participants

Figure 16 Regional distribution of questionnaire participants

2.Classification analysis
    We have categorized the questions into 3 categories according to the purpose of the survey, namely: 1. The public's understanding of the locust disaster; 2. Whether the public has experienced the locust disaster and the damage and prevention; 3. The public's understanding of different methods of locust disaster prevention and control. For the three classification modules, we analyzed the results separately.

Module 1: Public understanding of locust disaster

    In this module, we investigated whether people understand the areas where locust plagues have occurred in China in recent years, the types of locusts that caused the locust plagues in Africa,which attracted worldwide attention, and the climatic conditions that cause locust plagues in general.

    (1)35% of the participants have a clear understanding of the areas where locust disasters have occurred in China in recent years, but a wider range of people do not know the areas where locust disasters have occurred in China, accounting for 43%.

Figure 2 News reports of locust disasters in Yunnan Province in China, 35% of participants chose the correct province

    (2) More than half of the participants (59%) have knowledge of the species of locusts that cause the African locust plague

Figure 3 Africa has a severe locust plague caused by desert locusts, 59% of the participants chose the correct locust species

    (3)For the climatic factors that are likely to cause locust outbreaks, only 14 participants correctly matched the precipitation and green plant coverage, accounting for 5 %. 60 % of participants matched the exact opposite.

Figure 4 According to the statistics of research papers, areas with abundant rainfall and abundant green plants are prone to locust disasters, and only 5% of the participants chose the correct matching of precipitation and green plant coverage

    The above statistical results show that although the people are concerned about information related to locust disasters, especially serious disasters with a wide range of impacts, they are generally less concerned and understand the types of locusts that cause locust disasters. Few people know the climatic factors that cause the locust plague. We also investigated the extent to which participants are willing to increase their attention to content related to the locust disaster. 76% of the participants said they would increase their attention on the existing basis. And through research, we have also learned that information is obtained through news apps and WeChat articles. Comprehensive consideration of the survey results also makes us clear that the scope of science of locust disasters is not wide enough. We need to strengthen the knowledge of public science on locust disasters, and The public welcomes this kind of science popularization. Such research helps us determine that we can carry out such activities through new media.

Figure 5 48% of the participants expressed their willingness to pay more attention, 26% of the participants said they would pay more attention, 22% of the participants chose to maintain the status quo, and 4% of the participants said they would not pay attention to information related to the locust disaster

Figure 6 86.77% of participants obtain information through news apps’ articles, accounting for the largest proportion

Module 2: Whether the people have experienced locust disaster and the situation of disaster and prevention

    According to the feedback we received, 20% of the participants (51) said that their area had experienced a locust disaster, and 27% of the participants (69) said that they did not know whether their area had a locust disaster. Of the 51 participants who said that they had experienced a locust plague, 13 participants had personally experienced the locust plague, and in the feedback of the severity of the disaster, 2 people said that the disaster was very serious, 2 people said that the disaster was not serious, and the remaining 9 people said The disaster level is in the middle. We further counted the governance methods in the disaster-affected areas. Participants' feedback was mostly about manual hunting or the use of pesticides, pesticides and other chemicals. A few participants said that the locusts had disappeared naturally and there were no relevant measures. 95% of the participants who have not personally experienced the locust plague said they did not understand how the local locust plague was managed.

Figure 7 Regarding the loss of the locust disaster, the scores are 2 people for level 1 and 5, and 3 people for the scores 2, 3 and 4

Figure 8 Among the participants who have experienced locust plagues in their locations, 95% did not understand local prevention and control methods

    Combining the above statistical results, we found that most areas still use physical and chemical control methods, and the damage has not been effectively reduced. This shows that China still has a lot of room for improvement in the prevention and control of locust disasters, and traditional methods We did not fully meet the needs of governance. We asked the public about the attitudes of physical control, chemical control, and biological control. We found that 83.27% of the questionnaire survey participants believed that biological control methods were more effective, which was much higher than that of physical control. 53.70% of the methods used and 60.31% of the chemical control methods. In addition, as shown in Figure 10, we can see that 87.40% of the participants believed that biological control methods would be more powerful. This also allows our team to have a new understanding of our project has a new meaning for practice that with the promotion of biological control methods as the core-biological control, and it is easier to get the favor of the general public.

Figure 9 The proportion of participants supporting biological means as the most effective way to prevent locust plagues is 83.27%, the highest proportion

Figure 10 Participants who strongly agree that biological control will be a more advantageous means of preventing and controlling locust plagues in the future accounted for 45 %, more agree with 43 %, disagree and particularly disagree with 3 %, and do not understand biological control 9%

Module 3: People’s understanding of different ways of preventing and controlling locust disasters

    As shown in the figure, we can see that the public has a certain degree of understanding of traditional physical control methods, but does not have a high degree of understanding of specific chemical drugs, and has a relatively good basic understanding of biological control methods, which is very helpful for us to promote the project.

Figure 11 Participants' judgment on whether it is a traditional physical control method

Figure 12 Participants' judgments on those chemical agents

Figure 13 Participants' judgment on whether it is a biological control method

3.Cluster analysis
    We combined the different participants of the survey and conducted a cluster analysis based on age and education level.

    Taking the age of the participants as a cluster analysis factor, we can find that in the survey of the attention of the news related to the locust disaster, as they grow older, participants pay more attention to the locust disaster, and the relatively young group of under 20 paid less attention to locust disasters, and this result also helps us determine that when we spread science, we should give more consideration to such groups, such as high school students.

Figure 14 Pie chart of the age distribution of participants with 4 and 5 levels of attention to news related to the locust disaster

    A comprehensive analysis of the educational level of participants who recognized that biological control will be a more powerful method shows that the majority of groups with a college degree and above support biological control methods, indicating biological control It is widely recognized in groups with relatively high academic qualifications, also indicating that biological control methods will have better promotion space and potential among high-educated populations.

     In response to the 257 questionnaires collected, our team focused on analyzing the population’s understanding and concern about locust disasters, and further investigated the public’s preferred method of preventing and controlling locust disasters. The results show that the public needs to strengthen the content related to the locust disaster. Our door needs to make full use of new media platforms such as the Internet to expand the scope of popular science propaganda and strengthen science popularization. Moreover, we found that age and education level have a great correlation with the degree of attention to locust disasters and the understanding and support of biological control methods, which provide a good reference for the project audience. In addition, biological control methods are widely supported, and the public has a positive attitude towards the effects of biological control. Based on strong publicity and popular science, our project will definitely be welcomed and supported by the public. We are very happy with the results. , The questionnaire survey also successfully helped us understand the basic situation of the people, ascertain the direction of promotion, improve the content of the project, and clarify the value of the project.